Bunions are one of the more serious conditions that can affect foot health. A bunion is actually a bone deformity of the big toe, where the joint at the base and side of the toe is enlarged, forcing the toe out of place. Left untreated, bunions worsen over time. The big toe angles in toward the rest of the toe, and can overlap the third toe (a condition known as Hallux Valgus). Or, it may move toward the second toe and twist or rotate (Hallus Abducto Valgus). Bunions can also lead to deformities like hammertoes. Bunions cause discomfort and pain, because the enlargement constantly rubs against footwear. The skin of the toe becomes red and tender. The larger a bunion grows, the more painful it is to walk. People with bunions can develop thickening skin on the bottom of the foot, bursitis or arthritis, and chronic pain.
Bunions form when the normal balance of forces exerted on the joints and tendons of your feet are disrupted. This can lead to instability in the big toe joint - also known as the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, causing a deformity. Bunions develop over years of abnormal motion and pressure on your big toe joint. They often result from a combination of your inherited foot type, faulty foot mechanics that affect the way you walk and shoes that fit improperly. Other causes of bunions include foot injuries. Deformities present at birth (congenital). Neuromuscular disorders, such as cerebral palsy or post- polio syndrome (post-poliomyelitis). Bunions may be associated with various forms of arthritis, including inflammatory or degenerative, causing the protective cartilage that covers your big toe joint to deteriorate. An occupation that puts extra stress on your feet also can be a cause. Waiters, factory workers, dancers and athletes often are more prone to developing bunions.
Just because you have a bunion does not mean you will necessarily have pain. There are some people with very severe bunions and no pain and people with mild bunions and a lot of pain. Symptoms for a bunion may include pain on the inside of your foot at the big toe joint, swelling on the inside of your foot at the big toe joint, appearance of a "bump" on the inside edge of your foot. The big toe rolling over to one side. Redness on the inside of your foot at the big toe joint. Numbness or burning in the big toe (hallux). Decreased motion at the big toe joint. Painful bursa (fluid-filled sac) on the inside of your foot at the big toe joint. Pain while wearing shoes - especially shoes too narrow or with high heels. Joint pain during activities. Other conditions which may appear with bunions include Corns in between the big toe and second toe. Callous formation on the side or bottom of the big toe or big toe joint. Callous under the second toe joint. Pain in the second toe joint.
Your doctor is very likely to be able to diagnose your bunion simply by examining your foot. Even before that, he or she will probably ask about your family and personal medical history and evaluate the types of shoes you wear. You'll be asked about your symptoms, when they started and when they occur. You may also be asked to flex your toe so that your doctor can get an idea of your range of motion. He or she may order x-rays in order to determine the extent of your deformity.
Non Surgical Treatment
There are a number of treatment options for bunions. Non-surgical treatments are usually tried first, including painkillers, orthotics (insoles) and bunion pads. However, these can only help to reduce the symptoms of bunions, such as pain. They don't improve the appearance of your foot.
If non-surgical treatments fail to relieve bunion pain and when the pain of a bunion interferes with daily activities, it?s time to discuss surgical options with a foot and ankle surgeon. Together you can decide if surgery is best for you. A variety of surgical procedures is available to treat bunions. The procedures are designed to remove the ?bump? of bone, correct the changes in the bony structure of the foot, and correct soft tissue changes that may also have occurred. The goal of surgery is the reduction of pain. In selecting the procedure or combination of procedures for your particular case, the foot and ankle surgeon will take into consideration the extent of your deformity based on the x-ray findings, your age, your activity level, and other factors. The length of the recovery period will vary, depending on the procedure or procedures performed.
To help prevent bunions be sure your shoes don't cramp or irritate your toes. Choose shoes with a wide toe box - there should be space between the tip of your longest toe and the end of the shoe. Your shoes should conform to the shape of your feet without squeezing or pressing any part of your foot. Avoid pointy-toed shoes.